Estimated Number of Parkinson's Patients Globally ~ 10,000,000.00

- BLOG Bulletin of WPP’S -

Different types of Parkinsonism

March 15, 2016 | Categories for this post are: Uncategorized

Parkinsonism can be categorized into four different types. These are: • Primary parkinsonism, • Secondary parkinsonism, • Atypical parkinsonism, • Familial neurodegenerative conditions causing parkinsonism. What is Primary parkinsonism? Primary parkinsonism is due to idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. It includes sporadic and familial cases and accounts for about 80% of... Read more

What are Lewy bodies?

March 10, 2016 | Categories for this post are: Uncategorized

Lewy bodies are spherical aggregates of protein that accumulate in the dopaminergic neurons, and are almost exclusively found in Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry has demonstrated these Lewy bodies are primarily composed of various inappropriately folded and undigested proteins including: alpha-synuclein, ubiquitin, microfilament and microtubule subunits. ... Read more

What is a Neuron and Structure of Dopamine Q & A

March 4, 2016 | Tags: Categories for this post are: Educational Material

Q: What are some of the neurotransmitters used in the brain? A: A number of different neurotransmitters or chemical substances, are used in the brain. Some of these are serotonin, acetylcholine, dopamine, and norepinephrine. Degeneration of cells that produce dopamine is associated with Parkinson’s disease. Q: How is dopamine made? A: There are several steps the body takes to synthesize... Read more

Different parts of Central Nervous System (CNS) – Q & A

March 1, 2016 | Tags: Categories for this post are: Educational Material

Q: What is function of the cerebral hemispheres? A. The cerebral hemispheres are responsible for facilitating our higher functions, and include: motor activity, perception, language, memory, and judgment. Q: What is the function of the brainstem? A: The brainstem is involved in maintaining our more basic functions, including: consciousness, breathing, swallowing, and eye movements. Q:... Read more

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Parkinsonism by Abdul Rana MD

February 29, 2016 | Tags: Categories for this post are: Educational Material,Parkinson’s Disease

Dr. Abdul Rana MD, Neurologist from Toronto, and World-Renown Parkinsonism Education Expert, talks about the Incidence and Prevalence of Parkinsonism, as well as its Risk Factors and Presenting signs and symptoms. ... Read more

Loss of Sense of Smeall in Parkinsonism by Dr. A.Q. Rana Neurologist

February 28, 2016 | Tags: Categories for this post are: Educational Material,Parkinson’s Disease

Loss of Sense of Smell is one of the pathologic symptoms of Parkinsonism and Parkinson's Disease. It occures in younger Parkinsonism patiens, and affects men and women equally, and sometimes is accompanied by loss of taste. ... Read more

Familial Neurodegenerative Diseases causing Parkinsonism

February 26, 2016 | Tags: Categories for this post are: Parkinson’s Disease

(see section on differential diagnosis) Heterodegenerative conditions like Wilson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Hallervorden-Spatz disease, Familial basal ganglionic calcification and Familial olivopontocerebellar atrophy may have some features similar to Parkinson’s disease. As mentioned above, Parkinson’s disease constitutes about 75-80% of cases of Parkinsonism. In the... Read more

Atypical Parkinsonism or Parkinson Plus Syndromes

February 24, 2016 | Tags: Categories for this post are: Parkinson’s Disease

These conditions have clinical features similar to Parkinson’s disease and initially may be difficult to differentiate from Parkinson’s disease solely based on the clinical examination. From the prognostic point, it is important to distinguish these conditions from classic Parkinson’s disease because the life expectancy in these conditions is shorter. In contrast to Parkinson’s disease,... Read more

What is Primary and Secondary Parkinsonism

February 22, 2016 | Tags: Categories for this post are: Parkinson’s Disease

A) Primary Parkinsonism: Primary Parkinsonism is due to classic idiopathic Parkinson’s disease and includes sporadic and familial cases. The classic idiopathic Parkinson’s disease makes up about 75-80% of cases of Parkinsonism. B) Secondary Parkinsonism: Secondary parkinsonism could be due to many known causes such as: 1. Drug induced (see section on differential diagnosis) 2.... Read more

Classification of Parkinsonism

February 19, 2016 | Tags: Categories for this post are: Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinsonism is classified into four main categories as follows. A. Primary (idiopathic) Parkinsonism 1. Parkinson’s Disease (sporadic and genetic) B. Secondary Parkinsonism (Acquired) 1. Drugs Induced: Antipsychotics such as dopamine receptors blocking drugs, antiemetics such as metoclopramide, dopamine depleting drugs like reserpine, tetrabenzine, alpha-methyl-dopa, lithium,... Read more

Does Iron supplements can exacerbate Parkinson’s disease?

February 15, 2016 | Tags: > Categories for this post are: Parkinson’s Disease

There is some suggestion that free radicals made by iron can worsen Parkinson’s disease by furthering damage to neurons. After iron is ingested, it is absorbed into the blood and bound to the protein transferrin. Transferrin travels through the blood and binds to specific receptors on certain cells—including the neurons in the substantia nigra. Once bound, the transferrin-iron complex is... Read more

Manganese role in the development of Secondary parkinsonism?

February 11, 2016 | Tags: Categories for this post are: Theories

People who abuse methcathinone—a psychoactive stimulant similar to amphetamines and cocaine—show increased levels of manganese (one of its ingredients) in the blood. When this is accompanied by extra-pyramidal syndrome and varying MRI signals from the basal ganglia, it implicates manganese as a cause of parkinsonism. Others have suggested that a prenatal exposure to dopaminergic neuronal... Read more

Urinary problems in Parkinson’s

February 9, 2016 | Tags: > Categories for this post are: Educational Material,Experts Videos

Urinary Problems in Parkinsonism Patients with A.Q. Rana MD, Educator Neurologist Dr. Rana, world renown Parkinsonism educator and Neurologist from Toronto, speaks about Urological Problems in Parkinsonism patients, including infections, retention, and incontinence. ... Read more

Classic Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease

January 25, 2016 | Tags: > > Categories for this post are: Parkinson’s Disease

Classic idiopathic Parkinson’s disease is a progressive condition with asymmetrical onset and is characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms. Patients with classic Parkinson’s disease may present with a variety of symptoms as discussed below. A. MOTOR SYMPTOMS OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE: 1. Bradykinesia: Bradykinesia is described by the patient as slowness of movements while performing... Read more

Drooling in Parkinson Disease with AQ Rana MD Neurologist

January 20, 2016 | Tags: Categories for this post are: Experts Videos

Dr. AQ Rana MD, neurologist from Toronto, Canada, noted Parkinsonism educator, speaks tonight of "Drooling in Parkinsonism", it consequences, causes, treatment, medications, use of botulinum, and general care of this problem in Parkinson Disease. ... Read more

Protective Factors For Parkinson’s Disease

January 16, 2016 | Tags: Categories for this post are: Parkinson’s Disease

Protective factors, if present, seem to decrease the risk of developing Parkinson’s Disease. The factors studied for protective effects include smoking, nicotine, caffeine, NSAID, omega 3 fatty acids, and hormone replacement therapy. Individuals who smoke or use smokeless tobacco have reduced the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. This may suggest that nicotine may have a... Read more

Can Botox be helpful in treating Parkinson’s disease?

January 12, 2016 | Tags: > > Categories for this post are: Educational Material

Botox is a commercial preparation of botulinum toxin that, when injected, blocks the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction and resulting in a paralysis lasting two to six months. Aside from its cosmetic appeal, it can eliminate spasmodic conditions like torticollis (wry neck), hemi-facial spasm, strabismus (spasms of the eye muscles), focal dystonia, spasmodic dysphonia (squeaky... Read more

What toxins have been linked to secondary parkinsonism?

January 1, 2016 | Tags: > Categories for this post are: Parkinson’s Disease,Theories

Exposure to a number of toxins has been associated with parkinsonism, including: • Mercury- this includes usage in dental amalgams (in the past), in dental fluorescent lamps, preservative thimerosol in vaccines and thermometers. • MPTP - a compound found in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. • Rotenone - a pesticide used in making animal models of Parkinson’s disease. •... Read more

Motor Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease

December 30, 2015 | Tags: > Categories for this post are: Educational Material,Parkinson’s Disease

Abdul Rana MD, Neurologist and world-renown Neurologist discusses the motor symptoms of Parkinsonism, commonly known called by patients, Parkinson's Disease. ... Read more

About Parkinson’s Disease: A Quick Question & Answer

December 26, 2015 | Tags: > Categories for this post are: Educational Material,Parkinson’s Disease

- What is function of the cerebral hemispheres? A. The cerebral hemispheres are responsible for facilitating our higher functions, and include: motor activity, perception, language, memory, and judgment. - What is the function of the brainstem? A. The brainstem is involved in maintaining our more basic functions, including: consciousness, breathing, swallowing, and eye movements. -... Read more

How are the basal ganglia associated with Parkinson’s disease?

December 21, 2015 | Tags: > Categories for this post are: Parkinson’s Disease

The Substangia nigra which is responsible for voluntary movement and mood regulation is part of the basal ganglia. Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra plays a key role in causation of Parkinson’s disease, resulting in abnormal, slow and incomplete movements. This means that it takes much longer to accomplish everyday tasks such as walking and eating. The basal ganglia... Read more

Are Parkinsonism and Parkinson’s disease the same thing?

December 15, 2015 | Tags: > > Categories for this post are: Educational Material,Parkinson’s Disease

No, they are not the same thing. Parkinsonism is a very non-specific term including motor deficits of stiffness, slowness, tremor, balance and gait problems. Usually, the presence of two of these symptoms is considered to be consistent with parkinsonism. There are several conditions that mimic Parkinson’s disease in their presentation—which sometimes makes them difficult to tell apart. These... Read more

How do dopaminergic neurons of the basal ganglia degenerate?

December 14, 2015 | Tags: > > Categories for this post are: Educational Material

Although, the exact mechanism for this phenomenon is not clear, there have been some theories. One such theory is that a normal mechanism of cell death called apoptosis may be accelerated. Apoptosis is a natural part of all systems; whereby a cell, which has grown old or begins to malfunction, undergoes a cascade of events that dismantle it before replacing it with a new cell. An example of... Read more

What early Parkinson’s disease exercise can help people that have trouble rising from a seated position?

December 10, 2015 | Tags: Categories for this post are: Parkinson’s Exercise

One exercise requires a person to start off sitting on a chair. The person then slides slightly towards the edge of the chair. Then the person leans forward so that their nose is close to their knees. Next, the person places one foot directly underneath the front edge of the chair and the other foot about half a step forward. They then hold on to the sides of the chair and lift themselves forward... Read more

How do dopaminergic neurons of the basal ganglia degenerate?

December 8, 2015 | Tags: > > Categories for this post are: Theories

Although, the exact mechanism for this phenomenon is not clear, there have been some theories. One such theory is that a normal mechanism of cell death called apoptosis may be accelerated. Apoptosis is a natural part of all systems; whereby a cell, which has grown old or begins to malfunction, undergoes a cascade of events that dismantle it before replacing it with a new cell. An example of... Read more

How can free radicals worsen Parkinson’s Disease?

December 7, 2015 | Tags: > Categories for this post are: Parkinson’s Disease

When examining life at the molecular level, there are a number of vitamins and minerals the body requires to function. The bonds that hold these basic elements can be disrupted if subjected to toxic substances such as: radiation, ultraviolet or infrared light, chemicals (ie. arsenic, cyanide, mercury), cosmic rays, and various gases (i.e. carbon monoxide, manganese fumes, ozone). Once such bonds... Read more

What are Parcopa and Madopar?

December 2, 2015 | Tags: > Categories for this post are: Educational Material

Parcopa is a preparation of levodopa/carbidopa that can be administered orally without water. Chewing the tablet increases the surface area and facilitates faster rates of uptake. Parcopa is also used to test a patient’s responsiveness to levodopa. This is done through patient evaluation following 24 hours of discontinued levodopa and then subsequent administration of Parcopa with re-evaluation... Read more

What is meant by stimulation surgery and who is a good candidate for it?

November 30, 2015 | Tags: > Categories for this post are: Surgery

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is also known as stimulation surgery, where counter currents are used in order to lessen the ‘static’ found in specific regions of the brain. The implantation is mainly made in, but not limited to the following regions: the subthalmic nucleus, the global pallidus, or the thalamus. Once the stimulator is implanted, it acts in a way to reduce or even possibly negate... Read more

What kind of house should a Person with Parkinson’s be looking for? – Part 1

September 28, 2015 | Categories for this post are: Volume 7

As Parkinson’s disease advances, the symptoms of slowness of movements and balance problems become more prominent. Many seniors may not find it easy to maintain a large house especially after symptoms of Parkinson’s disease start to progress. It may be wise to think of downsizing to a small house. You should speak a realtor who has good knowledge of Parkinson’s. Not only location, but... Read more

Another Breakthrough in Parkinson’s Vaccine!

September 28, 2015 | Categories for this post are: Volume 7

Prothena, an Irish biotechnology company has recently announced that its vaccine against Parkinson’s has been found to be safe and tolerable. This vaccine was studied in 40 healthy volunteers and was not only found to be safe but also was noted to be associated with lower alpha-synuclein levels, a protein which abnormally accumulates in certain brain cells of individuals with Parkinson’s... Read more

Frozen Shoulder and Parkinson’s:

September 28, 2015 | Categories for this post are: Volume 7

Some individuals may start feeling discomfort and even pain in one of their shoulders before the other symptoms of Parkinson’s disease become increasingly apparent. Decreased arm swing, stiffness and slowness of movement cause a limited range of motions of the shoulder, contributing to frozen shoulder. Frozen shoulder may develop before the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. This may... Read more

New Drugs for Parkinson’s!

September 28, 2015 | Categories for this post are: Volume 7

The start of the year of 2015 brings forth the addition of two new drugs for Parkinson’s disease.  Last week RytaryTM, an extended release formulation of carbidopa/levodopa for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). “The duration of the effect of Levodopa/Carbidopa becomes much shorter as Parkinson’s disease advances,... Read more

Parkinsonism OR Parkinson’s…

September 28, 2015 | Categories for this post are: Volume 6

It was somewhat confusing to Mr. JD to figure out whether he had parkinsonism or Parkinson's. As he was reading various online resources, the two terms seemed synonymous at some places and different at others. To relieve his uncertainty, he decided to ask his neurologist the next time he saw him for a follow up appointment. Sometimes patients and their caregivers may find it difficult to... Read more

Need for Parkinson’s Education…

September 28, 2015 | Categories for this post are: Volume 6

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive disabling neurodegenerative condition, and poses a variety of challenges. This adversely affects the quality of life for patients and their caregivers. People with chronic illnesses, like Parkinson’s disease, often receive care that is incomplete, inefficient, and fragmented, leading to ineffective treatment. Research has shown that Parkinson’s disease... Read more

Removing Parkinson’s Stigma…

September 28, 2015 | Categories for this post are: Volume 6

Healthcare professionals should educate themselves and others about the visible and invisible stigmas associated with Parkinson’s. As suggested by Dr. Rana and colleagues, using a holistic approach to assess a Parkinson’s patient as a whole person by incorporating your passion and experience may not only assist in understanding the complications of Parkinson’s disease, but can possibly... Read more

BREAKING NEWS!-Vaccine for Parkinson’s – One Step Closer to Victory…

September 28, 2015 | Categories for this post are: Volume 6

The Austrian biotech AFFiRiS AG reported positive results of its Phase I safety trial of a vaccine against Parkinson's disease on July 31, 2014. The vaccine is against alpha-synuclein, a hallmark of Parkinson's disease. The vaccine may help to slow down the progression or halt the disease by inducing antibodies against alpha-synuclein accumulation.  This experimental vaccine called PD01A was... Read more

Stigma of Parkinson’s…

September 28, 2015 | Categories for this post are: Volume 6

 Although symptoms may vary from person to person, Parkinson’s is a multisystem disorder that affects many aspects of an individual’s physical, psychological, and social well-being. And while medications may help treat the more visible symptoms of Parkinson’s, identification of the invisible symptoms remains a challenge. Therefore, healthcare professionals need to be aware of the... Read more

Oral Hygiene and Parkinson’s…

September 28, 2015 | Categories for this post are: Volume 6

   Growing evidence suggests that oral hygiene, which includes regular brushing of teeth and the tongue can be a major defence against the development of serious infections, particularly in the elderly and those who are physically compromised because of a neurologic diseases such as Parkinson's.  Many medications taken for Parkinson’s or other chronic diseases may have a drying effect... Read more

What indicates if swallowing may be a problem?

September 28, 2015 | Categories for this post are: Volume 6

 Dysphagia, or swallowing difficulty, has been reported in as high as 95% of individuals with Parkinson’s disease. Frequently, changes in the swallowing mechanism occur gradually over time, so an individual may adapt to these changes without realizing there is a problem, until further symptoms begin to show. These symptoms may include choking on saliva, or food and liquids. When the... Read more

Strategies for Swallowing Problems

September 28, 2015 | Categories for this post are: Volume 6

  Research estimates that as high as 95% of persons with Parkinson's disease eventually develop swallowing problems. Currently available  anti Parkinson drugs do not consistently improve swallowing function or prevent the development of swallowing problems, which has led swallowing researchers to explore other factors, such as: - Diet modifications, - Swallowing exercises -... Read more

Swallowing and Parkinson’s

September 28, 2015 | Categories for this post are: Volume 6

Would you be surprised to know thatresearch estimates as high as 95% of persons with Parkinson disease eventually develop swallowing problems (dysphagia). This can cause food, liquids, and even saliva to slip into the airways instead of the esophagus (the tube that leads to the stomach). In healthy people, contact with the larynx(voice box) by a foreign body should trigger a cough reflex to... Read more

How to get enough Vitamin D in the body?

September 28, 2015 | Categories for this post are: Volume 6

Research has shown that patients with Parkinson’s disease often have low levels of vitamin D. In southeastern United States, patients with Parkinson’s were noted to have lower blood levels of vitamin D than those without Parkinson’s. Those with Parkinson’s generally have lower bone mineral density and an increased risk of falls and hip fractures. Vitamin D is produced by the... Read more

Vitamin D and Parkinson’s

September 28, 2015 | Categories for this post are: Volume 6

Vitamin D Deficiency - A finding seen in many patients with Parkinson’s disease … Patients with Parkinson’s disease often have how levels of vitamin D. One of the research studies showed that majority of Parkinson’s disease patients had insufficient levels of vitamin D in their bodies. However, none of the research studies have established whether the vitamin D deficiency is a cause or... Read more

What if You Fall?

September 28, 2015 | Categories for this post are: Volume 5

Since falls may result in serious consequences, effective fall prevention strategies should be adopted by all Parkinson’s disease Centers and explained to patients. Our Fall Prevention Campaign aims to prevent Parkinson’s patients from falling by educating them, emphasizing gait and balance training, and donating walkers, canes and wheelchairs to those who can‘t afford these... Read more

It is time to Prevent Falls!

September 28, 2015 | Categories for this post are: Volume 5

Falls mean >>>>> fractures, disability, loss of independence, decreased self-respect, lack of confidence and social embarrassment. Preventing falls means >>>>> preventing hospitalization, social isolation and depression. Physicians should rule out other causes which may be responsible for falls such as arthritis, cardiac arrhythmias, postural hypotension,... Read more